- anybody with a mentally strenuous role
students or professionals who are studying for exams
- anybody looking to increase their acetylcholine levels
what is choline?
- choline is an isolated nutrient and the building block to acetylcholine; a chemical in the brain which is released when conducting cogntive task such as memory retention or learning.
- food derived choline can’t cross the blood-brain-barrier alone. It requires a specific carrier mechanism that transports free choline across the blood-brain barrier at a rate that is proportional to serum choline concentration.
choline is an isolated nutrient and the building block to acetylcholine; a chemical in the brain which is released when conducting cognitive tasks such as memory retention or learning.
choline is the precursor to acetylcholine; a chemical messenger in the brain which is essential for cognitive functioning. Boosting your choline levels can contribute to improved memory retention, learning and focus. [1, 2]
alpha GlycerylPhosphorylCholine (GPC) is an isolated nutrient which naturally occurs in the brain. Supplementation has been shown to:
- improve memory and learning ability [3,4,5]
- restore the bioavailability of acetylcholine [8,9]
- increase nerve growth factor receptors in the brain  and slow down undesirable structural changes in the brain [11,12]
- counteract brain ageing by increasing cholinergic receptors [6,7]
- counter the age-related loss of nerve cells and fibers in the brain 
food derived choline, choline bitartrate and choline citrate are unable to cross the blood brain barrier on their own. CDP Choline and Alpha GPC can cross the blood brain barrier however, CDP choline is only 18.5% choline by weight compared to 40% of Alpha GPC
- take 1 tablet with a meal.
vegetable cellulose capsule, brown rice flour
anti-caking agent: silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate
- alpha GlycerylPhosphorylCholine is an isolated nutrient which naturally occurs in the brain.
- 99% 500mg alpha GPC capsules
- take 1 tablet with a meal. 1 hour before work
 University of Granada. - Vitamin B: Choline intake improves memory and attention-holding capacity – ScienceDaily 11 July 2013.  Drago F et al. Behavioral effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine: influence on cognitive mechanisms in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav1992 Feb;41(2):445-8.  Schettini G, et al Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992 Sep;43(1):139-51.  Lopez CM et al Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Aug;39(4):835-40.  Amenta F et al cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus of aged rats: influence of choline alphoscerate treatment. Mech Ageing Dev 1994 Oct 1;76(1):49-64  Amenta F, et al Cholinergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of aged rats: influence of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine treatment. Ann N Y Acad Sci1993 Sep 4;695:311-3  Bronzetti E et al Effect of ipsilateral lesioning of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and of L-alpha-glyceryl phosphorylcholine treatment on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in the rat fronto-parietal cortex. Neurosci Lett1993 Dec 24;164(1-2):47-50  Trabucchi M, Govoni S, Battaini F. Changes in the interaction between CNS cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons induced by L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a cholinomimetic drug.Farmaco [Sci] 1986 Apr;41(4):325-34  Vega JA, Cavallotti C, del Valle ME, Mancini M, Amenta F. Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex of aged rats: effect of choline alfoscerate treatment. Mech Ageing Dev 1993 Jun;69(1-2):119-27.  Amenta F, Ferrante F, Vega JA, Zaccheo D.Long term choline alfoscerate treatment counters age-dependent microanatomical changes in rat brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1994 Sep;18(5):915-24.  Amenta F et al Age-related structural changes in the rat cerebellar cortex: effect of choline alfoscerate treatment. Mech Ageing Dev 1991 Dec 2;61(2):173-86  Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, Barbagallo M, Giordano M, et al. Alpha-glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks: An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;717:253-69.  Lopez CM, Govoni S, Battaini F, Bergamaschi S, Longoni A, Giaroni C. Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on C17H21NO4 -induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Aug;39(4):835-40.  Gatti G, Barzaghi N, Acuto G, et al. A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and CDP in normal volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1992;30:331-5.  GPC: The New Choline that enhances your mental function now; smart-publications.com  Hayarelis Moreno et al - Chronic dietary choline supplementation modulates attentional change in adult rats Behavioural Brain Research Volume 243 15th 2013 * Steven Zeisel - Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline International Journal for Womens Health 2013; 5 193-199  Steven Zeisel – The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development - Journal of Paediatrics 2006 November 149 (5) S131 - 6  Mihai D Niculescu - Perintal Choline Influences Brain Structure and Function – Nutrition Review 2006 April 64 (4) 197-203  Steven Zeisel - Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet – The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 February: 89(2) 685-687