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5-htp benefits & side effects: The truth behind feeling good

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Everybody wants to get a good night’s sleep and feel good during the day. What makes that possible? Say hello to your feel-good chemical, serotonin. Serotonin is made from a natural nutrient 5-htp which, as a supplement, is derived from the seeds of an African plant. Higher 5-htp levels mean higher serotonin levels. Higher serotonin levels mean better mood and sleep. Online reviews praise 5-htp for its depression, anxiety and sleep benefits. What does science say? Here's your ultimate guide to feeling brighter by boosting serotonin with 5-htp. 

5-htp: what is it?

5-htp is a natural nutrient and the building block of your feel-good chemical serotonin. Despite its very chemical name, 5-htp is a naturally occurring compound. Your body can make small amounts of 5-htp from another compound often found in protein-rich foods like tofu and meat called tryptophan. Small amounts can also be found in Brazilian honey and certain types of mushrooms. The main natural source of 5-htp is the seed of a plant, native to west and central Africa, called Griffonia simplicifolia[1 Trusted Source 2022 - Foods Evidence review Edible Mushrooms as a Potential Component of Dietary Interventions for Major Depressive Disorder ,[2 Trusted Source 2021 - International Journal of Molecular Sciences Evidence review 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): Natural Occurrence, Analysis, Biosynthesis, Biotechnology, Physiology and Toxicology ,[3 Trusted Source 2013 - Mycoscience Study of chemical properties Levels of physiologically active indole derivatives in the fruiting bodies of some edible mushrooms (Basidiomycota) before and after thermal processing ,[4 Trusted Source 2022 - Melatonin Research Evidence review Serotonin, melatonin and their precursors and metabolites and vitamin D3 derivatives in honey ,[5 Trusted Source 2022 - Examine Peer-reviewed article Griffonia Simplicifolia ,[6 Trusted Source 2017 - Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Study of chemical properties A phytochemical exploration of Griffonia simplicifolia seeds and leaves . Griffonia seeds have been used as a traditional remedy for mental distress for centuries[7 Trusted Source 2020 - Feel Peer-reviewed article What is 5-HTP? Benefits, History, and Science of Griffonia Seed Extract . In 1995, 5-htp gained widespread acceptance after its introduction to the American market after it gained a lot of attention based on the first studies that linked it to serotonin and its benefits as early as the 1950s[7 Trusted Source 2020 - Feel Peer-reviewed article What is 5-HTP? Benefits, History, and Science of Griffonia Seed Extract . It’s now commonly used as a dietary supplement to support the production of serotonin and overall well-being. 

What does 5-htp do to the body?

5-htp helps your body produce more of your feel-good chemical serotonin. Serotonin supports positive mood and restful sleep.

What does 5-htp do to hormones?

5-htp plays a role in influencing two of your body's hormones - serotonin and melatonin. Here's how: 

1. Serotonin

While you can go straight to the 5-htp source and ingest a serotonin booster, you also ingest a lot of protein through your diet. This is where the chemical process of building your feel-good and sleep hormones starts. While foods don't contain serotonin; they do contain its building block tryptophan[8 Trusted Source My Food Data Database sourced from the USDA Food Data Central Foods Highest in Tryptophan . Here’s more on which foods help you increase serotonin. Before tryptophan can turn into 5-htp and get on its way to boosting your serotonin levels, it has quite the journey. Reliant on other molecules in your body to start this process, only 3% of tryptophan from food is actually used to make serotonin in the brain. When tryptophan crosses into the brain, it’s then converted to 5-htp. Serotonin (chemically known as 5-HT) is then made from 5-htp. The great news is you can skip this step by going straight to the source: 5-htp!

2. Melatonin

By helping your brain produce your feel-good chemical, serotonin is then converted into your sleep hormone melatonin at night. Melatonin gets released when it gets darker outside, preparing you for a good night's sleep by helping you regulate your body clock.

3. Dopamine

A common misconception is that 5-htp also influences levels of your reward and pleasure chemical, dopamine. Although serotonin and dopamine are both part of the happiness chemicals and work together, 5-htp has yet to be proven to deplete dopamine levels. While some articles have hypothesized that, they have later been retracted meaning more research is needed to give an insight on this topic.

What are the benefits of 5-htp?

What do 5-htp supplements do? 5-htp boosts the levels of your happiness chemical which increases its availability. Serotonin can then be released, making you feel better and helping you sleep well. This allows your body to release serotonin and melatonin when it should. Imagine taking a 5-htp supplement. If you make an effort and go walk outside in the sun for half an hour, your body will be able to release the serotonin that you just helped your body produce. This will help regulate your mood. For example, 5-htp’s promising results show people experienced better mental health as soon as after just 1 week of supplementation[9 Trusted Source 1978 - Folia Psychiatrica Et Neurologica Japonica Human clinical study Clinical evaluation of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan as an antidepressant drug . Similarly, when it starts to get dark outside and you’re winding down before bed, your body will start to release melatonin which is crucial for a good night’s sleep.

The market is full of different supplements, so you’re probably wondering does 5-htp really work. brain feed developed s 5-htp which is natural and contains a 100 mg dose per capsule based on scientific evidence.  


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Mood, sleep, stress, PMS and menopause symptoms are all benefits often suggested in 5-htp reviews - but what does the clinical evidence suggest?

Does 5-htp work for depression?

Reviewing studies spanning more than a decade, brain feed found two that tried to explain why 5-htp has a potential role in depression. Here’s what they found. In healthy individuals, 1-3% of serotonin’s building block tryptophan is converted to serotonin in the brain[10 Trusted Source 2009 - International Journal of Tryptophan Research Evidence review L-Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic Indications . Let’s see how it happens and why 5-htp could help with mood disorders like depression. Imagine driving to the city centre. Two sets of roads lead there:

  1. The first route is a complicated one. If you take it, there’s way more chance you’ll get stuck in traffic and end up feeling stressed before you get into the city. This represents the body’s kynurenine pathway where tryptophan gets converted to serotonin to a certain extent - there’s a high chance of tryptophan turning into multiple toxins along the way which causes inflammation in your body, leading to depression[11 Trusted Source 2021 - Molecular Psychiatry Systematic review and meta-analysis The kynurenine pathway in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of 101 studies
  2. The second one is a faster, more straightforward route. When you take it, there’s less chance of getting stuck in traffic, making your ride comfortable and faster. This one represents the serotonergic pathway, where tryptophan gets converted to 5-htp which then makes serotonin. 

You’re probably wondering why anyone would choose the first route. Well, if you’re trying to boost serotonin just by ensuring an adequate amount of tryptophan intake through your diet, there’s always a possibility that it’ll go down the first instead of the second pathway. It’s almost like the car that’s taking you to the city centre is driven by someone else. While there’s a chance your body will produce a good amount of serotonin via this route, there’s also a possibility it’ll harm your body. So, how are 5-htp & depression linked? Going straight to 5-htp, allows you to cut into the second route, making sure you keep your inflammation at bay while also boosting the levels of your feel-good chemical.

Is 5-htp an antidepressant?

An extensive review of 13 studies found that 5-htp positively affected symptoms of 14 different types of depression[12 Trusted Source 2020 - Nutrition Reviews Systematic review and meta-analysis Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on distinct types of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis . A natural isolated nutrient, 5-htp is often dubbed a "natural antidepressant" on social media, however, compared to antidepressants, it differs in the way it affects your body. Prescription medications for depression aim to correct the imbalance of serotonin, while 5-htp elevates serotonin levels. SSRIs stop the mood-boosting chemical from being re-used for brain processes, giving serotonin a chance to be released[3 Trusted Source 2013 - Mycoscience Study of chemical properties Levels of physiologically active indole derivatives in the fruiting bodies of some edible mushrooms (Basidiomycota) before and after thermal processing . 5-htp increases the production of the happiness hormone itself which also makes more serotonin available for release[13 Trusted Source 2020 - Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry Human clinical study An updated classification of antidepressants: A proposal to simplify treatment . While antidepressants take a long time to kick in and have a myriad of side effects, being an over-the-counter natural supplement and having a quick mechanism of action, 5-htp is becoming a popular choice for people looking for a natural alternative. Let’s see if the research evidence agrees. A study on 60 people who were experiencing their first depressive episode found 5-htp as effective for treating depression as an antidepressant called fluoxetine[14 Trusted Source 2013 - Asian Journal of Psychiatry Human clinical study Comparative study of efficacy of l-5-hydroxytryptophan and fluoxetine in patients presenting with first depressive episode . There has also been more research into how to deal with seasonal depression. A doctoral thesis looked into patients with SAD or seasonal affective disorder and found that more serotonin gets re-used in the brain in the winter months meaning there’s a shortage of serotonin that can get released and help you feel better[15 Trusted Source 2017 - University of Toronto, Graduate Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Human clinical study Analysis of the Effect of Season, Seasonal Affective Disorder and light Therapy on Serotonin Transporter Binding . Consequently, 5-htp could help provide your brain with enough serotonin so it can still manage to regulate your mood. Despite the promising conclusions, 5-htp is yet to be recognised as an official treatment for depression by the NHS. More studies need to confirm its impact first.  

Does 5-htp help with anxiety?

Two studies have explored the link between 5HTP for relieving anxiety. From the late 80s to early 2000s, serotonin and panic attacks have been linked. A study showed that 5-htp supplementation reduces the panic reactions people with anxiety experience[16 Trusted Source 2002 - Psychiatry Research Human clinical study Acute L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration inhibits carbon dioxide-induced panic in panic disorder patients . Another study compared 5-htp to an antidepressant frequently prescribed to people experiencing anxiety[17 Trusted Source 1987 - International Clinical Psychopharmacology Human clinical study Effect of a serotonin precursor and uptake inhibitor in anxiety disorders; a double-blind comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan, clomipramine and placebo . They found that 5-htp was just as effective in reducing the symptoms of anxiety as prescribed medication, highlighting the potential of 5-htp for anxiety. Higher serotonin levels have also been linked to counteracting the effects of excessive levels of the stress hormone cortisol in anxiety and improving melatonin production for better sleep.

Does 5-htp help you sleep?

An increase in 5-htp will boost your serotonin production. Because an adequate amount of serotonin is vital to make melatonin, this promotes high-quality sleep and keeps your body clock ticking efficiently. Here’s what the studies found. 5-htp users experienced sleep benefits and studies have found that 5-htp can help increase the sleep stage in which dreaming and brain development occur by 50%[2 Trusted Source 2021 - International Journal of Molecular Sciences Evidence review 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): Natural Occurrence, Analysis, Biosynthesis, Biotechnology, Physiology and Toxicology . In older adults, 5-htp helped decrease the time it took them to fall asleep, thus improving sleep quality[18 Trusted Source 2021 - Current Developments in Nutrition Human clinical study The Impact of 5-Hydroxytryptophan Supplementation on Sleep Quality of Older Adults in Singapore: A Randomized Controlled Trial . Children experiencing sleep terrors also reported an increase in restful sleep when supplemented with 5-htp[19 Trusted Source 2004 - European Journal of Pediatrics Human clinical study L -5-Hydroxytryptophan treatment of sleep terrors in children . Compared to melatonin, you can take 5-htp during the day. That contributes towards serotonin and melatonin production without making you feel drowsy. Although studies have shown a beneficial effect for 5-htp & sleep, this natural supplement is yet to be prescribed to treat sleep problems. 

5-htp for women's health

A new focus of 5-htp research is exploring its benefits regarding women's health. Changes in hormones that happen during PMS and menopause affect serotonin. The levels of this feel-good chemical drop and make you experience mood and temperature dysregulation and trouble sleeping[20 Trusted Source 2018 - Scientific Reports Human clinical study Menstrual cycle rhythmicity: metabolic patterns in healthy women ,[21 Trusted Source 2016 - Breast Cancer Evidence reviewed The pharmacological and hormonal therapy of hot flushes in breast cancer survivors ,[22 Trusted Source 2005 - BMC Women’s Health Evidence reviewed An overlooked connection: serotonergic mediation of estrogen-related physiology and pathology . Therefore, 5-htp supplements for hot flashes and period mood swings could be the natural way to help women feel better. As of now, medicine is using antidepressants to help your brain elevate serotonin levels. Despite promising results, more studies are needed to confirm 5-htp’s beneficial effects on women’s health.

5-htp for party recovery

After a festival, people experience the so-called comedown either because they were partying hard or started feeling a little blue when entering back into the real world. 5-htp, a naturally occurring compound, is here to help. Taking 5-htp after a party drug intake or a weekend of enjoying music and having fun increases your serotonin levels in harmony with the brain’s balance of serotonin needs[23 Trusted Source 2021 - Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy Human study User perceptions of long-term costs and benefits of MDMA use: Findings from a large online sample ,[24 Trusted Source 2017 - Psychology Today Peer-reviewed article Boosting Your Serotonin Activity . That’s why 5-htp has been dubbed as the comedown cure in the festival community that can help beat post-festival blues.  

Is it OK to take 5-htp every day?

In short, yes - you can take 5-htp daily at a recommended dose for longer periods of time. Let’s take a look at why is 5-htp safe. A study found that 5-htp supplementation has been safely taken for up to 6 months[25 Trusted Source 1986 - European neurology Human clinical study 5-Hydroxytryptophan versus methysergide in the prophylaxis of migraine. Randomized clinical trial . Doses between 150 and 500 mg daily showed benefits in multiple studies, while higher doses are considered potentially toxic[26 Trusted Source 2023 - Examine Peer-reviewed article 5-HTP benefits, dosage, and side effects . To get your body used to 5-htp, start with a lower dose and build it up - that’s why taking 5-htp supplements in divided doses is great. Even though people online are discussing 5-htp withdrawal as they believe 5-htp blunts serotonin, this natural nutrient keeps your serotonin production normal even after supplementation. 5-htp only provides your body with enough serotonin’s building block that is lacking in today’s Western diet. Serotonin’s release, however, comes down to the activities you do in your day-to-day life, making it impossible for 5-htp to blunt serotonin.

How long does it take 5-htp to work?

5-htp is hypothesised to peak at around 2 hours after ingestion. Each nutrient has a so-called ‘half life’ which, in this case, is the time it takes for 5-htp in your system to fall to half its original value. 

Say you drink a cup of coffee containing 100mg of caffeine, you start to feel the effects within 15 to 45 minutes. The effects typically peak about an hour after you drink the cup, however part of the caffeine stays in your system longer. At the 6-hour mark, you still have around 50mg of caffeine in your system. The same is true for 5-htp. Whilst a cup of coffee may still be in your system 6 hours later, 5-htp is reduced in a different way meaning it reaches its half life anywhere within 2  to 8 hours after taking it, depending on your sex, age, body type etc.[27 Trusted Source 1982 - Psychiatry Research Human clinical study Kinetics of l-5-hydroxytryptophan in healthy subjects . Evidence suggests that about 2 hours after taking it, the 5-htp you ingested will peek in the blood, crossing into the brain and steering serotonin production. 

Is there a downside to taking 5-htp?

Like any supplement, 5-htp is safe and non-toxic when you follow the serving recommendations. Looking at 5-htp side effects, at very high doses (for example 6 grams for a person that weighs 60 kg), 5-htp has been associated with a so-called serotonin syndrome in lab animals[2 Trusted Source 2021 - International Journal of Molecular Sciences Evidence review 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): Natural Occurrence, Analysis, Biosynthesis, Biotechnology, Physiology and Toxicology . This is a condition rarely seen in humans, caused by too much serotonin in the brain which leads to symptoms including nausea and anxiety. The same could happen if you were prescribed antidepressants which stop the re-use of serotonin in the brain, making your serotonin levels go through the roof, and taking 5-htp with them. Therefore, if taking SSRIs, steer clear of 5-htp. In other cases, 5-htp is completely safe to use when you follow the recommendation on dose and time of intake[2 Trusted Source 2021 - International Journal of Molecular Sciences Evidence review 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): Natural Occurrence, Analysis, Biosynthesis, Biotechnology, Physiology and Toxicology

Buy 5-htp UK & US: A checklist for the best

When it comes to buying any supplement you should consider quality, format, dosage and source. brain feed’s 5-htp is naturally extracted from the Griffonia seeds and contains 100mg per capsule - twice the strength of 5-htp available in 5-htp Holland and Barrett and 5-htp Boots


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Which is better: 5-htp or St John's Wort?

While 5-htp benefits are scientifically proven, the effects of another natural alternative remedy for depression you may have come across called St John’s Wort are still up for debate. As an easy comparison between the two, St John’s wort claims to stop the reabsorption of serotonin while 5-htp increases the amount of serotonin. For more of an in-depth review read more about alternative remedies for depression. Because of the many side effects that St John’s Wort causes, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also denied the plant’s products being licensed for prescription or over-the-counter treatments[28 Trusted Source 2017 - Medical News Today Peer-reviewed article St. John's Wort: Should I use it? .



All in all, 5-htp is nature’s effective and safe serotonin and melatonin booster which can in turn help you feel better while also supporting your sleep quality.

 

References

[1] Fijałkowska, A., Jędrejko, K., Sułkowska-Ziaja, K., Ziaja, M., Kała, K., & Muszyńska, B. (2022). Edible Mushrooms as a Potential Component of Dietary Interventions for Major Depressive Disorder. Foods, 11(10), Article 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101489

[2] Maffei, M. E. (2021). 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): Natural Occurrence, Analysis, Biosynthesis, Biotechnology, Physiology and Toxicology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010181

[3] Muszyńska, B., Sułkowska-Ziaja, K., & Wójcik, A. (2013). Levels of physiologically active indole derivatives in the fruiting bodies of some edible mushrooms (Basidiomycota) before and after thermal processing. Mycoscience, 54(5), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.myc.2012.11.002

[4] Kim, T.-K., Fabisiak, A., Brzeminski, P., Reiter, R. J., & Slominski, A. T. (2022). Serotonin, melatonin and their precursors and metabolites and vitamin D3 derivatives in honey. Melatonin Research, 5(3), 374–380. https://doi.org/10.32794/mr112500137

[5] Patel, K. (2022). Griffonia Simplicifolia. Examine. https://examine.com/supplements/griffonia-simplicifolia/

[6] Giurleo, D. (2017). A phytochemical exploration of Griffonia simplicifolia seeds and leaves [Master Thesis]. Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/52205/#:~:text=The%20average%205%2DHTP%20content,magnesium%2C%20copper%2C%20and%20phosphorus.

[7] Hipwell, K. (2020). What is 5-HTP? Benefits, History, and Science of Griffonia Seed Extract. Feel. https://wearefeel.com/blogs/learn/what-is-5htp

[8] Foods Highest in Tryptophan (n.d.). My Food Data. https://tools.myfooddata.com/nutrient-ranking-tool/tryptophan/all/highest/grams/common/no

[9] Nakajima, T., Kudo, Y., & Kaneko, Z. (1978). Clinical evaluation of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan as an antidepressant drug. Folia Psychiatrica Et Neurologica Japonica, 32(2), 223–230. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.1978.tb00143.x

[10] Richard, D. M., Dawes, M. A., Mathias, C. W., Acheson, A., Hill-Kapturczak, N., & Dougherty, D. M. (2009). L-Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic Indications. International Journal of Tryptophan Research, 2, IJTR.S2129. https://doi.org/10.4137/IJTR.S2129

[11] Marx, W., McGuinness, A., Rocks, T., Ruusunen, A., Cleminson, J., Walker, A., Gomes-da-Costa, S., Lane, M. M., Sanches, M., Paim Diaz, A., Tseng, P.-T., Lin, P.-Y., Berk, M., Clarke, G., O’Neil, A., Jacka, F., Stubbs, B., Carvalho, A., Quevedo, J., & Fernandes, B. (2021). The kynurenine pathway in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of 101 studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 26. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00951-9

[12] Javelle, F., Lampit, A., Bloch, W., Häussermann, P., Johnson, S. L., & Zimmer, P. (2020). Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on distinct types of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews, 78(1), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz039

[13] Alvano, S. A., & Zieher, L. M. (2020). An updated classification of antidepressants: A proposal to simplify treatment. Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry, 19–20, 100042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmip.2019.04.002

[14] Jangid, P., Malik, P., Singh, P., Sharma, M., & Gulia, A. kumar D. (2013). Comparative study of efficacy of l-5-hydroxytryptophan and fluoxetine in patients presenting with first depressive episode. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2012.05.011

[15] Tyrer, A. E. (2017). PET Analysis of the Effect of Season, Seasonal Affective Disorder and light Therapy on Serotonin Transporter Binding [Doctoral thesis]. University of Toronto, Graduate Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology. https://www.proquest.com/openview/aa32ecfd386f9bc03eefcc82bf73612d/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750

[16] Schruers, K., van Diest, R., Overbeek, T., & Griez, E. (2002). Acute L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration inhibits carbon dioxide-induced panic in panic disorder patients. Psychiatry Research, 113(3), 237–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-1781(02)00262-7

[17] Kahn, R. S., Westenberg, H. G., Verhoeven, W. M., Gispen-de Wied, C. C., & Kamerbeek, W. D. (1987). Effect of a serotonin precursor and uptake inhibitor in anxiety disorders; a double-blind comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan, clomipramine and placebo. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2(1), 33–45. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004850-198701000-00003

[18] Sutanto, C., Heng, C. W., Gan, A. X., Wang, X., Fam, J., & Kim, J. E. (2021). The Impact of 5-Hydroxytryptophan Supplementation on Sleep Quality of Older Adults in Singapore: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Current Developments in Nutrition, 5, 372. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzab037_082

[19] Bruni, O., Ferri, R., Miano, S., & Verrillo, E. (2004). L -5-Hydroxytryptophan treatment of sleep terrors in children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 163(7), 402–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-004-1444-7

[20] Draper, C. F., Duisters, K., Weger, B., Chakrabarti, A., Harms, A. C., Brennan, L., Hankemeier, T., Goulet, L., Konz, T., Martin, F. P., Moco, S., & van der Greef, J. (2018). Menstrual cycle rhythmicity: metabolic patterns in healthy women. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 14568. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32647-0

[21] Wiśniewska, I., Jochymek, B., Lenart-Lipińska, M., & Chabowski, M. (2016). The pharmacological and hormonal therapy of hot flushes in breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer, 23(2), 178–182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12282-015-0655-2

[22] Rybaczyk, L. A., Bashaw, M. J., Pathak, D. R., Moody, S. M., Gilders, R. M., & Holzschu, D. L. (2005). An overlooked connection: serotonergic mediation of estrogen-related physiology and pathology. BMC Women’s Health, 5(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-5-12

[23] Elsey, J., Wuestman, V., & Fieten, A. (2021). User perceptions of long-term costs and benefits of MDMA use: Findings from a large online sample. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2023.2284643

[24] Korb, A. (2017). Boosting Your Serotonin Activity. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/prefrontal-nudity/201111/boosting-your-serotonin-activity#:~:text=The%20four%20ways%20to%20boost,a%20more%20in%2Ddepth%20look

[25] Titus, F., Dávalos, A., Alom, J., & Codina, A. (1986). 5-Hydroxytryptophan versus methysergide in the prophylaxis of migraine. Randomized clinical trial. European neurology, 25(5), 327–329. https://doi.org/10.1159/000116030

[26] Frank, K. & Nguyen, K. (2023). 5-HTP benefits, dosage, and side effects. Examine. https://examine.com/supplements/5-htp/

[27] Westenberg, H. G., Gerritsen, T. W., Meijer, B. A., & van Praag, H. M. (1982). Kinetics of l-5-hydroxytryptophan in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research, 7(3), 373–385. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(82)90074-9

[28] Nordqvist, C. (2017). St. John's Wort: Should I use it? Medical News Today. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/174928.php

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