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alpha gpc benefits alpha gpc dosage alpha gpc side effects alpha gpc uk acetylcholine supplement

Alpha GPC benefits memory scores in over 400 people: A review 

Published Feb 21, 2023 | Updated Feb 8, 2024

Your memories are a result of sophisticated brain networks working together to help you remember everything that you can recall. The brain’s memory centre receives information from different areas and processes them for storage, so you can remember details for minutes, days and even years. The memory centre is enriched with brain cells that produce your learning and memory brain chemical called acetylcholine [1]. Acetylcholine helps with memory storage for long term retention, which has been consistently researched for over 50 years. Producing sufficient acetylcholine is needed to maintain optimal memory functions. 

How can you make more of your memory chemical?

Your body uses a nutrient called choline to produce acetylcholine. Your body can produce small amounts of choline, but to meet all your needs, it must be taken from your diet. The European guidelines recommend adults to take 400mg of choline everyday [4]. Choline is found in beef, eggs, mushrooms, and soy. These provide an average of 200 mg choline per 100g food [2]. Upon consumption, choline enters the brain and is converted to acetylcholine [5].

If your diet is low in choline sources, and to ensure sufficient intake, a high-quality choline supplement is a good option. One of the best sources of choline currently available is Alpha GPC. This well researched choline source is 41% choline. It can freely enter the brain to produce acetylcholine in 1-3 hours [3], making it an effective acetylcholine supplement like the world’s 1st 500mg Alpha GPC UK made supplement containing 99% Alpha GPC (the purest form of Alpha GPC). Read more here.

29 years of Alpha GPC research: the verdict is out. 

Researchers often examine multiple studies over time to compile a review and a conclusion, which helps provide strong evidence in the form of a meta-analysis. A 2023 Alpha GPC review meta-analysis has been published on its benefits among those with cognitive impairment [6]. 8 high quality studies conducted between 1993-2022, with over 400 participants were examined.

The studies looked at memory scores of those supplemented with Alpha GPC. 7 studies used the tested questionnaires including MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) to assess cognitive impairment and the efficacy of supplementation. This is a validated questionnaire used in research to measure memory and language skills.

Some of the participants were on medications that prevented the breakdown of acetylcholine in the brain. The Alpha GPC study review also included studies that looked at its effect when taken with medication.

The results were impressive:

Alpha GPC taken by itself or along with medication led to better scores on the MMSE. 
When taken with the medication, the memory scores improved further.

The researchers concluded its beneficial effect in improving memory of those with cognitive impairment. Alpha GPC dosage that was found to be effective was 1200mg/day. 

The period of supplementation was 90-720 days, providing a good insight into the effectiveness of safe long-term supplementation.

Serious Alpha GPC side effects despite a high dose were unreported, attesting to the safety and good tolerability of the supplement. 

The review was limited about why Alpha GPC helped improve memory scores but based on past research, it is possible that the improvement was possibly due to increase in acetylcholine levels. Further research is warranted in this field with varying dose and length of supplementation.


    1. Huang, Q., Liao, C., Ge, F., Ao, J. and Liu, T. (2022). Acetylcholine bidirectionally regulates learning and memory. Journal of Neurorestoratology, 10(2), p.100002.
    2. Nutrient Search Tool (n.d.). Foods highest in Choline. [online] Nutrition Data. 
    3. Frank, K. et al. (2022). Alpha-GPC Research Analysis. [online]
    4. Dietary Reference Values for choline. (2016). EFSA Journal, 14(8).
    5. Zhao, D. et al. (2001). Generation of choline for acetylcholine synthesis by phospholipase D isoforms. BMC neuroscience2, 16.
    6. Sagaro, G. G. et al. (2023). Activity of Choline Alphoscerate on Adult-Onset Cognitive Dysfunctions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD, 10.3233/JAD-221189. Advance online publication.

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