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Dopamine and addiction l tyrosine for withdrawal  addictions and the brain dopamine and drug addiction  Addiction recovery dopamine addiction

Dopamine and addiction: The evidence of l-tyrosine for withdrawal

Published Oct 4, 2022 | Updated Jul 22, 2024
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At a primary level, humans are benefit-led, and actions are motivated by the rewards obtained. The brain has a reward system that facilitates actions, motivation, reward and pleasure. The brain chemical that takes centre stage in the reward and pleasure system is dopamine. This intricate reward system uses dopamine as a form of communication. What role does dopamine play in addiction and is l-tyrosine for withdrawal a good choice? Here’s what the science says.

How is dopamine produced?

Dopamine is produced from an amino acid called L-tyrosine. Amino acids are building blocks of protein. L-tyrosine is taken from the diet through protein-rich foods or supplements. It enters the brain and gets converted to L-dopa which is converted to dopamine. Availability of L-tyrosine is essential for dopamine production[1]. 

How does dopamine work?

Feel-good experiences such as eating your favourite food, having sex, and achieving academic or career milestones, activate dopamine release. Its effects reach the motivation and memory centre of the brain which reinforces the repetition of the action to experience the rewarding feeling[2 Trusted Source 2010 - Neuron Research evaluation Dopamine in Motivational Control: Rewarding, Aversive, and Alerting ,3]. Does dopamine rewire your brain? It tells your body that this event is worth experiencing. This way it stores the rewarding feeling as a memory. The reward system is fine-tuned such that dopamine is released when a reward is expected to further motivate you to take action to achieve it.

Addiction and the brain: what changes?

Addiction is a condition where the individual goes through phases of excessive consumption of an addictive substance like drugs, alcohol, or nicotine, which includes phases of use, abstinence, and relapse[4]. Addiction involves both psychological and physiological dependence. During psychological dependence, substance use becomes associated with certain feelings, events, or triggers[5 Trusted Source Direct2Recovery 3rd-party source The Difference Between Psychological, Physiological Dependence and Addiction . For example, seeing an advertisement for your favourite fast food chain triggers cravings for that food. Psychological dependence can include uncertainty about the ability to stop using, obsessing over obtaining more substances, denial and dismissive behaviours[6 Trusted Source Ashley Everything for Recovery 3rd-party source The Difference Between Physical and Psychological Dependency . Physiological dependence involves changes in brain chemistry leading to tolerance, where more of the substance is needed to achieve the same effect[5 Trusted Source Direct2Recovery 3rd-party source The Difference Between Psychological, Physiological Dependence and Addiction , [7 Trusted Source 2015 - Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience Research evaluation The addicted brain: understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of addictive disorders . Symptoms of physical dependence occur when the substance is stopped, such as withdrawal symptoms like fear, anxiety, and lashing out[6 Trusted Source Ashley Everything for Recovery 3rd-party source The Difference Between Physical and Psychological Dependency . Addiction also involves alterations in brain systems related to reward, reinforcement, motivation and memory[7 Trusted Source 2015 - Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience Research evaluation The addicted brain: understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of addictive disorders , [8 Trusted Source Psychology Today 3rd-party source What Is Addiction? . Key brain messengers underlie the pathological changes at different stages of addiction and fuel the habits[7 Trusted Source 2015 - Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience Research evaluation The addicted brain: understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of addictive disorders . Exactly what happens in the brain with addiction? During addiction, the dopamine system is sent into overdrive. This causes a so-called dopamine withdrawal. Nora D. Volkow, the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), USA, presents a model of four circuits involved in addiction: reward, motivation, memory, and control. What does dopamine do to addiction? The enhanced value of drugs increases in the reward, motivation and memory circuits[9 Trusted Source 2003 - The Journal of Clinical Investigation Research evaluation The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies . It’s so powerful that it overshadows the control circuit[9 Trusted Source 2003 - The Journal of Clinical Investigation Research evaluation The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies . This reinforces the uncontrolled drive to seek pleasure derived from drugs. There is a strong bond between dopamine and drug addiction. Addiction stems from enhanced habit formation due to drugs increasing dopamine levels 3-5 times more than normal pleasurable activities[10 Trusted Source 2002 - Neuron Research evaluation Brain Reward Circuitry , which strengthens the drive to seek them often. As drug intake increases, a constant release of high amounts of dopamine forms a new threshold. Increased dopamine levels are needed to feel the same intensity of pleasure. As the brain adapts to this increase, the impact of dopamine dampens, fuelling further intake, thus forming the cycle of addiction[11 Trusted Source 2010 - BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Research evaluation Addiction: decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain's control circuit . Due to dopamine’s role in motivation, drug-seeking becomes the main motivational drive for addicts. Addiction is treatable, however, and many treatments are available for a successful recovery.

Dopamine and addiction: the influence of drugs

Every drug impacts the dopamine system differently. The higher the dopamine release, the greater the euphoria (“high”) experienced. The faster the drug enters the brain, the larger the dopamine release and the more intensive the reinforcing effect[8 Trusted Source Psychology Today 3rd-party source What Is Addiction? , [9 Trusted Source 2003 - The Journal of Clinical Investigation Research evaluation The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies . What happens when your dopamine levels are off? Drugs alter the dopamine system in 2 basic ways. They increase release and decrease removal.

Drugs affect the dopamine system in the following ways[10 Trusted Source 2002 - Neuron Research evaluation Brain Reward Circuitry , [11 Trusted Source 2010 - BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Research evaluation Addiction: decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain's control circuit ,12,13,14]:

Alcohol

It takes under 6 minutes to reach your brain[15] where it increases dopamine release. It also indirectly increases dopamine by inhibiting the relaxing brain chemical (GABA) that regulates dopamine brain cells. This allows unrestricted increase of dopamine. Opiates like morphine and heroin also follow a similar path.

Nicotine

It can enter the brain within 10-20 seconds of smoking[16]. It increases the production of the enzyme (a compound that speeds up a chemical reaction) that converts tyrosine to dopamine. It also increases the release of dopamine from brain cells.

Cocaine

It produces effects within 5 seconds and they last between 15-90 mins[17]. It decreases the removal of dopamine, which prolongs dopamine’s effect. It blocks the transporters that carry dopamine away. Amphetamines also work this way.

Marijuana

Weed enters the blood immediately, reaches peak levels within 6-10 mins and enters the brain[18]. There, it increases the production of dopamine and its release.

Addiction recovery: what is L-tyrosine’s role?

The good news is that addiction is reversible. The brain is a resilient organ and is capable of fixing the damage and dopamine imbalance caused by drugs. It can take just 14 days for brain areas to start repair work upon alcohol abstinence[19], while it may take 14 months for the dopamine system to return to near normal upon drug abstinence[20]. Complete abstinence is often the goal of many addiction recovery programs. Removal of alcohol, nicotine and drugs lowers dopamine below normal levels, leading to the negative side-effects experienced during withdrawal[21 Trusted Source 2020 - The Permanente Journal Research evaluation Mechanisms of Action and Pharmacokinetics of Cannabis , which increase the chances of relapse.

How do you reset dopamine levels? By increasing your l-tyrosine intake. It is important to note that L-tyrosine’s dopamine production conforms to the brain’s regulated dopamine system and is non-addictive. This is opposite to drugs’ forceful increase of dopamine production and its prolonged activation.

L-tyrosine and drugs

A study of recovering drug addicts who were administered a nutrient supplement containing tyrosine found that 6 supplementations decreased drug-withdrawal symptoms[21 Trusted Source 2020 - The Permanente Journal Research evaluation Mechanisms of Action and Pharmacokinetics of Cannabis . An animal study of drug addiction also found that the provision of a multi-nutrient supplement with high doses of tyrosine for 8 weeks decreased withdrawal symptoms and promoted higher abstinence rates[22 Trusted Source 2012 - Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research Human study Rapid partial regeneration of brain volume during the first 14 days of abstinence from alcohol .

L-tyrosine and nicotine

A study among men smoking 10-25 cigarettes a day who were provided a tyrosine-free drink during an abstinence phase found that depleted tyrosine levels lead to higher cigarette cravings[23]. Contrasting results were found in a small study where smokers provided tyrosine-free drinks during short-term abstinence had lower motivation to obtain cigarettes due to reduced dopamine levels[24]. 

L-tyrosine and alcohol 

Similar results to the study on men who smoked 10-25 cigarettes per day were found among abstinent alcoholics, where the removal of tyrosine increased the desire for alcohol intake[25 Trusted Source 2012 - Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Medical Sciences Human study Neurotransmitter-precursor-supplement intervention for detoxified heroin addicts

Whilst the theory of tyrosine helping with withdrawal makes sense, the evidence is limited and most importantly, inconclusive.

How can I increase my dopamine naturally? Try l-tyrosine

L-tyrosine naturally and safely increases dopamine levels so rewarding and pleasurable experiences can be enjoyed. A review of 35 studies found that tyrosine supplementation improved cognitive functions in stressed individuals with low dopamine levels[26]. Tyrosine intake can be increased as a part of a balanced high-protein diet and can be safely supplemented to meet needs. Is there a pill that gives you dopamine? brain feed has created the world’s 1st natural 800mg tyrosine capsule from fermented corn.

 

If you're struggling with addiction or know someone who is, here's an NHS support resource regarding substance misuse and gambling addiction.

 

References

[1] Le Masurier, M. et al. (2005). Effect of Acute Tyrosine Depletion in Using a Branched Chain Amino-Acid Mixture on Dopamine Neurotransmission in the Rat Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(2), pp.310–317.

[2] Bromberg-Martin, E.S. et al. (2010). Dopamine in Motivational Control: Rewarding, Aversive, and Alerting. Neuron, [online] 68(5), pp.815–834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.11.022

[3] Guy-Evans, O. (2021). Brain Reward System - Simply Psychology. [online]

[4] Solinas, M. et al. (2018). Dopamine and addiction: what have we learned from 40 years of research. Journal of Neural Transmission, 126(4).

[5] The Difference Between Psychological, Physiological Dependence and Addiction (n.d.) Direct2Recovery. https://direct2recovery.com/psychological-physiological-dependence-and-addiction/

[6] The Difference Between Physical and Psychological Dependency (n.d.) Ashley Everything for Recovery. https://www.ashleytreatment.org/rehab-blog/physical-and-psychological-dependency/

[7] Herman, M. A., & Roberto, M. (2015). The addicted brain: understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of addictive disorders. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 9https://doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2015.00018

[8] What Is Addiction? (n.d.). Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/addiction

[9] Volkow, N.D. et al. (2003). The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, [online] 111(10), pp.1444–1451. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI18533

[10] Wise, R.A. (2002). Brain Reward Circuitry. Neuron, 36(2), pp.229–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0896-6273(02)00965-0

[11] Volkow, N.D. et al. (2010). Addiction: Decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain’s control circuit. BioEssays, 32(9), pp.748–755. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201000042

[12] Volkow, N.D. et al. (2007). Dopamine in Drug Abuse and Addiction: Results of Imaging Studies and Treatment Implications. Archives of Neurology. 64(11):1575–1579.

[13] Volkow, N.D. et al. (2011). Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, [online] 108(37), pp.15037–15042.

[14] Arias-Carrión, O. et al. (2010). Dopaminergic reward system: a short integrative review. International Archives of Medicine, 3(1), p.24.

[15] Hiremagalur, B. et al. (1993). Nicotine increases expression of tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Involvement of protein kinase A-mediated pathway. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, [online] 268(31), pp.23704–23711.

[16] Wise, R.A. et al. (2020). Dopamine and Addiction. Annual Review of Psychology, 71(1), pp.79–106. 

[17] Bloomfield, M.A.P. et al. (2016). The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system. Nature, [online] 539(7629), pp.369–377. 

[18] From The Glass To The Brain In Six Minutes. (2009). ScienceDaily. [online]

[19] Goriounova, N.A. et al. (2012). Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Nicotine Exposure during Adolescence for Prefrontal Cortex Neuronal Network Function. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, [online] 2(12).

[20] Stein, S. (2022). How Long Does Cocaine Stay in Your System? (Blood, Urine & Saliva). American Addiction Centers [online]

[21] Chayasirisobhon, S. (2020). Mechanisms of Action and Pharmacokinetics of Cannabis. The Permanente Journal, 24(5). https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/19.200

[22] van Eijk, J. et al. (2012). Rapid Partial Regeneration of Brain Volume During the First 14 Days of Abstinence from Alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(1), pp.67–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01853.x

[23] Volkow, N.D. et al. (2001). Loss of Dopamine Transporters in Methamphetamine Abusers Recovers with Protracted Abstinence. The Journal of Neuroscience, [online] 21(23), pp.9414–9418.

[24] Diana, M. (2011). The Dopamine Hypothesis of Drug Addiction and Its Potential Therapeutic Value. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2(64).

[25] Chen, D. et al. (2012). Neurotransmitter-precursor-supplement intervention for detoxified heroin addicts. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences], 32(3), pp.422–427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11596-012-0073-z

[26] Webber-Waugh, A. et al. (2017). Drug Seeking Behavior of Amphetamine Addicted Sprague-Dawley Rats Is Eliminated after Nutritional Supplementation. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 07(12), pp.585–597. 

[27] Munafó, M.R. et al. (2007). Effects of acute tyrosine depletion on subjective craving and selective processing of smoking-related cues in abstinent cigarette smokers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 21(8), pp.805–814. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881107077216

[28] Venugopalan, V.V. et al. (2011). Acute Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Depletion Reduces Motivation to Smoke Cigarettes Across Stages of Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(12), pp.2469–2476.

[29] Sun, H. (2010). Effects of Acute Tyrosine, Tryptophan, and Phenylalanine Depletion Treatment on Cue-Induced Alcohol Urging in Patients With Alcohol Dependence in China. [online] 

[30] Jongkees, B.J. et al. (2015). Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands—A review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 70, pp.50–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.08.014

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