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What is DHA? Guide to a natural and safe nutrient for brain support

Published May 3, 2024 | Updated May 24, 2024
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If you're looking to give your brain a boost, you'll want to get acquainted with DHA. This superstar omega 3 fatty acid packs a serious punch when it comes to your well-being. DHA plays a vital role in brain development and function, making it a must-have for kids and adults alike. Think of it as brain food that helps keep those little grey cells firing on all cylinders. From maintaining your brain and eye health, DHA has a range of impressive benefits. This article covers all the need-to-knows on sources, safety, dosages and potential side effects.


Omega 3s: EPA vs DHA

You’ve probably heard about the healthy fats called the omega 3s before. They have long been praised for their physical and psychological health. Multiple fatty acids make up omega 3 fats and they’re known as ALA, EPA and DHA. The lesser known of the 3, ALA promotes the maintenance of normal cholesterol levels and the normal growth and development of children[1 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha-linolenic acid and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 493) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 625) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on request from the European Commission ,[2 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), entry ID 493 ]. What about the other two, what are EPA and DHA good for? While EPA is well-known and used in many supplements, only DHA acid offers cognitive and visual health benefits and can also be converted into EPA in very small amounts[3 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 497 ,[4 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the cognitive development of the unborn child and breastfed infant ,[5 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 508 ,[6 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Mead Johnson Nutritionals on DHA and ARA and visual development ,[7 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the visual development of the unborn child and breastfed infant ,[8 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 533 . DHA and EPA combined in high doses also provide you with cardiovascular benefits[9 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA), entry ID 502 ,[10 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA), entry ID 506 ,[11 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), entry ID 510 . This article focuses on brain health. So, is DHA just omega 3? Yes, DHA is one of the fatty acids that need to be ingested to be able to form omega 3. DHA boasts multiple health benefits compared to other omega 3 acids. Let’s take a look closely at what those are.

What does DHA do for your body?

DHA helps maintain normal brain function and vision[3 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 497 ,[4 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the cognitive development of the unborn child and breastfed infant . In fact, it's the DHA in omega 3 rather than omega 3 itself that has the 3 EU-certified claims for brain health. Exactly what is DHA’s role in the body? Well, DHA is highly concentrated in the brain and the soft tissue behind the eye called the retina[12 Trusted Source 2011 - Biochimie Evidence review Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS)—Implications for dietary recommendations . About 25% of the brain actually consists of DHA. This allows it to help your brain and body be healthier for longer by facilitating normal, healthy function between brain cells and equipping your body with its antioxidant properties. DHA also plays a vital part in the early stages of life nurturing both foetal and infant development.

Is DHA necessary during pregnancy and breastfeeding?

DHA for pregnancy was also shown to contribute to the normal brain and visual development of the foetus and breastfed infants up to 12 months of age with “omega 3 milk”[5 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 508 ,[6 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Mead Johnson Nutritionals on DHA and ARA and visual development ,[7 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the visual development of the unborn child and breastfed infant . DHA and pregnancy being intertwined means maternal DHA intake is very important for the child’s life quality.


What foods have the highest DHA?

Fish are the foods that are high in DHA the most. Atlantic salmon, for example, contains about 1500 mg of DHA per 100 grams[13 Trusted Source My Food Data Database sourced from the USDA Food Data Central Foods Highest in Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) . It’s followed closely by mackerel, anchovies, herring and tuna, making oily fish one of the top DHA foods. If you’re vegan or tend to avoid eating fish, keep reading to find out how you can get fish-free DHA. 


What is a DHA supplement good for?

DHA supplements help you maintain your DHA levels which provide you with multiple physical and mental health benefits. Despite fish being recommended as an important part of the diet, a lot of people are dealing with omega 3 deficiency. 68% of adults and 95% of children from the US are deficient in omega 3 and only 25% of British people eat the daily recommended amount of oily fish[14 Trusted Source 2021 - BMJ Open Human study Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid serum concentrations across life stages in the USA: An analysis of NHANES 2011–2012 ,[15 Trusted Source 2019 - Frontiers in Nutrition Human study Oily Fish and Omega-3s Across the Life Stages: A Focus on Intakes and Future Directions . Luckily, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are available, allowing you to up your DHA levels with ease. brain feed developed a sustainable and plant-based double-concentrated omega 3 that boasts an impressive 500 mg of DHA in one vegan capsule. Get 15% off your first purchase with code ‘NEW15’.  


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What is the best form of vegan omega 3?

One word: algae. I know you’re curious about how do vegans get omega 3? They go straight to the original source - like fish! The reason fish are high in omega 3 is because of the algae they consume. Algae is one of the best vegan omega 3 sources and is available in supplemental form giving you the health benefits you want and need. As algae oil is completely plant-based it provides you with high-strength, high-quality DHA oil that is less likely to oxidize and smell fishy. Although a lot of people believe that foods rich in ALA omega 3 will help you get enough DHA to feel the benefits, the conversion rate from ALA to DHA is small. 2 studies showed that men convert 0-4% of ALA into DHA, while women convert 9% of it[16 Trusted Source 2002 - The British Journal of Nutrition Human clinical study Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in young men ,[17 Trusted Source 2002 - The British Journal of Nutrition Human clinical study Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women . This means you’d need to eat a bunch of flax or chia seeds to get the recommended amount which would actually provoke conditions like diarrhoea.    


Does DHA really work?

A better brain and cognitive function, regulated mood and ADHD alleviation are the DHA benefits often suggested online. Let’s take a look at what the clinical evidence and DHA reviews say.

How does omega 3 help your brain?

Cognitive function is vital for a good life and DHA helps your brain stay sharper and brighter for longer. A study on 280 US participants found that higher DHA levels were associated with improved cognitive performance in healthy adults[18 Trusted Source 2010 - The Journal of Nutrition Human clinical study Serum phospholipid docosahexaenonic acid is associated with cognitive functioning during middle adulthood . A study on 22 participants also showed improved memory and attention in adults consuming higher DHA levels as they’re associated with the brain’s ability to change, remodel and reorganise for a better ability to adapt to new situations, a process called neuroplasticity[19 Trusted Source 2012 - The British Journal of Nutrition Human clinical study DHA-rich oil modulates the cerebral haemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults: A near IR spectroscopy pilot study , [20 Trusted Source 2014 - Periodicum Biologorum Evidence review Neuroplasticity . Studies on the supplementation of omega 3’s benefits for brain health found that DHA: 

[21 Trusted Source 2005 - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Evidence review Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals ,[22 Trusted Source 2014 - Neural Plasticity Evidence review Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap ,[23 Trusted Source 2016 - Nutrients Evidence review DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function . These brain-nourishing DHA properties are also connected to improvements in brain function. Let’s see what science says. 

Does DHA improve brain function?

Studies say DHA maintains the sharpness of your brain, providing you with omega 3 brain benefits. An extensive study on 1575 US participants found that lower DHA levels are associated with smaller brain volumes and a pattern of cognitive impairment even in people currently free of clinical dementia[24 Trusted Source 2012 - Neurology Human clinical study Red blood cell ω-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging . This means that low DHA levels may contribute to impairments in cognition, supporting the notion of omega 3 benefit for mild cognitive decline. Additionally, a 6-month study on 50 participants with mild cognitive decline examined the levels of DHA and brain function. They found that higher DHA levels were associated with better cognitive function in adults older than 65[25 Trusted Source 2012 - The British Journal of Nutrition Human clinical study Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month randomised controlled trial . The research has indicated that DHA supplementation may assist with cognitive impairment.

Does omega 3 help with ADHD?

In the past year, a new wave in popularity has also emerged from claims that omega 3 helps with ADHD as studies found benefits for inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Multiple studies suggest that inattention can be improved with omega 3. ADHD symptoms of inattention improved in children and young adolescents with ADHD symptoms who were monitored by their parents and teachers throughout the supplementation period[26 Trusted Source 2010 - Acta Paediatrica Human clinical study EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD ,[27 Trusted Source 2018 - Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Human clinical study Omega‐3 supplementation associated with improved parent‐rated executive function in youth with mood disorders: Secondary analyses of the omega 3 and therapy (OATS) trials ,[28 Trusted Source 2019 - Minerva Pediatrica Human clinical study Early monitoring of fatty acid profile in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder under treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids . Additionally, a Spanish study on 60 children is also suggestive of the positive effects of omega 3 fatty acids for ADHD and impulsiveness symptoms[29 Trusted Source 2022 - Neurologia Human clinical study Impulsiveness in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after an 8-week intervention with the Mediterranean diet and/or omega-3 fatty acids: A randomised clinical trial . Despite the results, omega 3 is yet to be considered as an ADHD medicine. If you have ADHD symptoms, consult your local GP. 

Does omega 3 improve mood?

To some extent yes - omega 3 & mood are linked as supplementation was shown to reduce depressive symptoms by acting anti-inflammatory, helping you feel better if you’re experiencing low mood as a result of an inflammatory mood disorder like depression. A review of studies that in total included 1366 participants with an average age of 14 suggests that omega 3 may help reduce inflammation in the body, which could, in turn, help alleviate depressive symptoms[30 Trusted Source 2023 - European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Systematic review and meta-analysis Pharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment in children and adolescents with depressive symptoms: A systematic-review and meta-analysis . The study found that anti-inflammatory treatments were effective in reducing depressive symptom severity like cognitive symptoms and hopelessness in children and adolescents making omega 3 for mood a valuable option. Despite the conclusion from studies, omega 3 is yet to be considered as an antidepressant or any kind of medication. If you’re experiencing frequent or prolonged low mood or anxiety, consult your local GP.


Is it safe to take DHA everyday?

Yes, DHA is safe to take every day. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) answered the “is DHA safe” question. They confirm that supplementation of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5000 mg per day is safe for adults[31 Trusted Source 2012 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) . Are there any side effects of DHA? When taken at the recommended dose, DHA is safe. A commonly reported side effect of DHA from fish oil is fishy burps. DHA from algae oil causes less fishy burps compared to fish oil, frequently making it a more popular choice. DHA could also cause some interference with people taking blood-thinning medication. 

Is it better to have more EPA or DHA?

DHA is the omega 3 fatty acid providing you with most of the health benefits according to the European Food Safety Authority so it's better to have more of it in a supplement. DHA has a whopping 8 health claims that are authorised by EFSA with most of them confirming benefits on the brain and visual development[3 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 497 ,[4 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the cognitive development of the unborn child and breastfed infant ,[5 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 508 ,[6 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Mead Johnson Nutritionals on DHA and ARA and visual development ,[7 Trusted Source 2009 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the visual development of the unborn child and breastfed infant ,[8 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 533 ,[9 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA), entry ID 502 ,[10 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA), entry ID 506 ,[11 Trusted Source European Commission Governmental authority Health Claims EU register: Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), entry ID 510 . This makes DHA a more optimal omega 3 fatty acid, providing you with more benefits.

Is 500mg of DHA too much?

Examining results from 25 studies between 2006 - 2015 brain feed's set out to answer the question of how much DHA per day you need. With 13 studies showing positive effects of DHA supplementation at different dosages, the sweet spot was considered to be 500 mg.


Buy DHA UK, EU & US: A checklist for the best

The safety, quality and dosage guidelines for DHA are what can help you decide on the optimal product. You’ve learned about safety and dose, now let’s take a look at quality control. 

Algae vs fish oil

There are currently multiple different DHA products on the market. The main difference is whether they are made from algae or fish oil. What is algae oil good for? Algae oil is considered a purer natural source of omega 3s than fish oil so it makes sense that the research shows benefits of algae oil such as improved memory and relieved cognitive deficits[32]. Besides the functional benefits, why are algae oil omega 3 supplements considered a better option when comparing algae oil vs fish oil? The DHA found in algae oil is also more concentrated than in fish oil. A study found algae oil supplements had 2-3 times more DHA compared to popular fish oil brands[33 Trusted Source 2014 - Food Chemistry Evidence review Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil . Besides having beneficial effects on people, it also helps the environment. Fish oil, while still being a popular choice, can accumulate heavy metals like mercury and other contaminants from the environment[34 Trusted Source 2005 - Environmental Health Perspectives Animal study Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds . In contrast, algae oil is produced in controlled conditions, producing fewer impurities[35]. This makes algae oil a much safer choice. Furthermore, fish oil supplements are one of the causes of a drop in the fish population. The cultivation of algae as a DHA source, on the other hand, offers an environmentally responsible solution to depleting fish stocks[34 Trusted Source 2005 - Environmental Health Perspectives Animal study Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds ,[35 Trusted Source 2012 - Microbial Cell Factories Evidence review Microalgal biofactories: A promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production ,[36 Trusted Source 2002 - Environmental Science & Technology Animal study Investigation of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Farmed Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ), Salmon Aquaculture Feed, and Fish Oil Components of the Feed .

Ensure high-quality DHA

Algae and fish oil are prone to oxidation - the more a product oxidises, the lower the quality meaning the product will taste and smell fishy. brain feed developed an 11-stage rigorous production process to keep oxidation at bay. During the encapsulation process, the exposure, temperature and humidity of algae oil are controlled to ensure that brain feed’s product can be one of the non-fishy omega 3 supplements. This also allows the oil to stay as clear as possible. Because algae oil is prone to oxidation, brain feed’s encapsulating process is carefully designed. A soy-derived anti-oxidant, vitamin E, is added to algae oil to help the quality of the oil and keep the fishy taste away. The oil itself is cooled down in storage twice during a process known as winterisation, and filtered before, after and in between each cooling down step to ensure the oil is as clear as possible. brain feed’s packaging also provides an additional layer of ensuring the quality of algae oil can stay the same. The packaging contains permanent UV light and moisture barriers which ensure the preservation of DHA and tasteless high-quality omega 3. This affects the total oxidation value or TOTOX which marks the quality, conformity, safety and freshness of the omega 3 preparation or the oil used in it. According to EFSA, the TOTOX value needs to be 26 or lower[37 Trusted Source 2010 - The EFSA Journal Governmental authority Scientific Opinion on Fish Oil for Human Consumption. Food Hygiene, including Rancidity . brain feed DHA’s TOTOX value is 18, meaning that only 18.8% of oil has oxidised. This showcases the high quality of the product as the TOTOX value is significantly lower than the guidelines recommend. 

Neuromind plus DHA vs brain feed

One of the most popular supplements that contain DHA is Neuromind plus DHA. It contains a multivitamin and DHA tablets. The latter consists of only 600 mg of omega 3 fish oil, providing you with only 300 mg of DHA and 60 mg of EPA. Furthermore, the omega 3 used in their supplement comes from fish oil instead of algae oil. They also claim to provide you with a so-called high-purity omega 3, however, the TOTOX value which would reveal the quality of their product is yet to be published anywhere. 

brain feed’s DHA consists of 1000 mg of algae oil omega 3, providing you with 500 mg of DHA and 20 mg of EPA, making this product a high-quality, high-strength plant-based option suitable for all people.


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The synergy between DHA & Alpha GPC

To ensure the great benefits of DHA you just discovered, you might want to opt for Alpha GPC supplementation as well. Choline is critical for transporting DHA into brain cells, where it is incorporated into the house of a cell known as a membrane[38 Trusted Source 2018 - Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers Evidence review The Synergy of Choline and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Optimized Transition Cow Nutrition: A Hypothesis ,[39 Trusted Source 2023 - Foods Animal study Choline and Fish Oil Can Improve Memory of Mice through Increasing Brain DHA Level . This synergy between choline and DHA ensures that the brain's structural and functional needs are met during the crucial stages of development. This underscores the idea that the combination of choline like Alpha GPC and DHA offers greater cognitive benefits than either nutrient alone. brain feed developed the world’s 1st 99% 500mg capsules providing the purest and highest-quality Alpha GPC supplement in a single dose. Click below to get the benefits of Alpha GPC & DHA.


All in all, DHA is a great supplement for maintaining brain and eye health, allowing you to get your omega 3s up when you need it.

 

References

[1] EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2009). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha-linolenic acid and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 493) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 625) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal, 7(9), 1252–1269. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1252

[2] Health Claims EU register: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), entry ID 493 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-6327

[3] Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 497 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-6366

[4] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2009). Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the cognitive development of the unborn child and breastfed infant. The EFSA Journal, 1007, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1007

[5] Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 508 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-6367

[6] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2009). Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Mead Johnson Nutritionals on DHA and ARA and visual development. The EFSA Journal, 941, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.941

[7] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2009). Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the visual development of the unborn child and breastfed infant. The EFSA Journal, 1006, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1006

[8] Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), entry ID 533 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-8293

[9] Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA), entry ID 502 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-8354

[10] Health Claims EU register: Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA), entry ID 506 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-8362

[11] Health Claims EU register: Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), entry ID 510 (n.d.). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/food/food-feed-portal/screen/health-claims/eu-register/details/POL-HC-6368

[12] Guesnet, P., & Alessandri, J.-M. (2011). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS)—Implications for dietary recommendations. Biochimie, 93(1), 7–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2010.05.005

[13] Foods Highest in Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (n.d.). My Food Data. https://tools.myfooddata.com/nutrient-ranking-tool/dha/all/highest/grams/common/no

[14] Murphy, R. A., Devarshi, P. P., Ekimura, S., Marshall, K., & Mitmesser, S. H. (2021). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid serum concentrations across life stages in the USA: An analysis of NHANES 2011–2012. BMJ Open, 11(5), e043301. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043301

[15] Derbyshire, E. (2019). Oily Fish and Omega-3s Across the Life Stages: A Focus on Intakes and Future Directions. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, 165. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00165

[16] Burdge, G. C., Jones, A. E., & Wootton, S. A. (2002). Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in young men. The British Journal of Nutrition, 88(4), 355–363. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002662

[17] Burdge, G. C., & Wootton, S. A. (2002). Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. The British Journal of Nutrition, 88(4), 411–420. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002689

[18] Muldoon, M. F., Ryan, C. M., Sheu, L., Yao, J. K., Conklin, S. M., & Manuck, S. B. (2010). Serum phospholipid docosahexaenonic acid is associated with cognitive functioning during middle adulthood. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(4), 848–853. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.119578

[19] Jackson, P. A., Reay, J. L., Scholey, A. B., & Kennedy, D. O. (2012). DHA-rich oil modulates the cerebral haemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults: A near IR spectroscopy pilot study. The British Journal of Nutrition, 107(8), 1093–1098. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511004041

[20] Demarin, V., & Morović, S. (2014). Neuroplasticity. Periodicum Biologorum, 116(2), 209–211. https://hrcak.srce.hr/126369

[21] McCann, J. C., & Ames, B. N. (2005). Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 28, 281–295. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn.82.2.281

[22] Murphy, T., Dias, G. P., & Thuret, S. (2014). Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap. Neural Plasticity, 2014, 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/563160

[23] Lauritzen, L., Brambilla, P., Mazzocchi, A., Harsløf, L. B. S., Ciappolino, V., & Agostoni, C. (2016). DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function. Nutrients, 8(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010006

[24] Tan, Z. S., Harris, W. S., Beiser, A. S., Au, R., Himali, J. J., Debette, S., Pikula, A., Decarli, C., Wolf, P. A., Vasan, R. S., Robins, S. J., & Seshadri, S. (2012). Red blood cell ω-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging. Neurology, 78(9), 658–664. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e318249f6a9

[25] Sinn, N., Milte, C. M., Street, S. J., Buckley, J. D., Coates, A. M., Petkov, J., & Howe, P. R. C. (2012). Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Nutrition, 107(11), 1682–1693. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511004788

[26] Gustafsson, P. A., Birberg-Thornberg, U., Duchén, K., Landgren, M., Malmberg, K., Pelling, H., Strandvik, B., & Karlsson, T. (2010). EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992), 99(10), 1540–1549. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01871.x

[27] Vesco, A. T., Young, A. S., Arnold, L. E., & Fristad, M. A. (2018). Omega‐3 supplementation associated with improved parent‐rated executive function in youth with mood disorders: Secondary analyses of the omega 3 and therapy (OATS) trials. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(6), 628–636. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12830

[28] Checa-Ros, A., Haro-García, A., Seiquer, I., Molina-Carballo, A., Uberos-Fernández, J., & Muñoz-Hoyos, A. (2019). Early monitoring of fatty acid profile in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder under treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Minerva Pediatrica, 71(4), 313–325. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.18.04975-7

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