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what foods contain alpha gpc alpha gpc natural sources foods rich in acetylcholine good source of choline natural sources of choline alpha gpc

Work smarter with natural sources of choline & Alpha GPC

Published Aug 14, 2023 | Updated Feb 8, 2024

The brain is a marvellous organ that contributes to every single process in your body. Think of it as a central computer regulating all bodily functions. To do that successfully and efficiently, you must ensure that the brain gets the right building blocks in. Your nutrient-filled diet helps the brain produce chemicals that can then get released which helps you live the life you want and deserve. Let’s take a look at what natural sources can help you work smarter.

Watch this video to learn choline's benefits towards a smarter brain:

Acetylcholine: your memory chemical

For your brain to be able to help you with your studies and work tasks it needs to be able to produce an essential brain messenger which plays a role in memory and learning. It’s called acetylcholine and can help you work longer while boosting the speed of your information recall abilities[1]. When it gets released, it positively impacts your working memory meaning you can easily remember what you came looking for in the fridge even if a family member or a flatmate stops you on your way there. Higher levels of the memory chemical also help you task switch more effectively[2]. Do you ever lose your thread while reading emails if a coworker starts speaking to you? High levels of acetylcholine are here to help if you make sure your diet contains foods rich in acetylcholine’s building block choline. 

Cognitive skills-boosting diet 

Choline is a nutrient essential for the proper functioning of the brain[3]. It can be obtained from the diet as it is naturally present in some foods like eggs, beef and fish. Unsweetened cocoa powder is also a good source of choline. This building block helps the brain function by transforming into acetylcholine. Adequate choline intake can produce the right amount of acetylcholine meaning your memory chemical can get released during mentally strenuous tasks like working or studying. These are the top 5 choline-rich foods[4].

 Choline in mg per 100g of food
Pan Fried Beef Liver 418.2
Fried Egg 317.1
Soy-Based Protein Powder 312.9
Hard Boiled Egg 293.8
Unsweetened Chocolate Powder 266.9


The choline competition: Which one is the best one? 

There are different forms of choline[5]. Choline that you gain from food and forms of choline such as choline bitartrate and choline citrate have a more challenging time passing from the blood to the brain. A very potent form of choline called Alpha GPC, however, can cross the blood-brain barrier, directly supporting acetylcholine production[6,7]. Alpha GPC is considered one of the most used sources of choline due to its high, 40% choline content by weight and its ability to cross from the blood to the brain[5]. Most Alpha GPC products use a 50% Alpha GPC which consists of half bulking agent and half Alpha GPC. They only contain 20% choline. Another form of choline known as CDP choline or citicoline has an even lower choline content of 18.5%. You can read more about the differences here. 

Working smarter instead of harder

Alpha GPC boosts acetylcholine production, meaning your learning chemical can then get released, contributing to improved learning, memory retention and focus[8,9]. Alpha GPC has also been shown to help the ageing brain[5,10]. The levels of the memory chemical acetylcholine get boosted while you supply your body with Alpha GPC. Studies show that boosting choline levels can help restore the bioavailability of acetylcholine[11,12], while supplementation with Alpha GPC indicated an increase in brain function directly related to the healthy supply of acetylcholine[13]. brain feed developed the world’s 1st 500mg acetylcholine’s building block Alpha GPC capsule containing 99% Alpha GPC in 2018. New customers can get 15% off their first buy by using ‘NEW15’ code at checkout. 

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What foods contain Alpha GPC?

To put your mind at ease, Alpha GPC is naturally produced in the brain despite its name. Studies have also shown that some foods contain multiple forms of choline including Alpha GPC itself[14,15,16]. Let’s take a look at natural sources of choline Alpha GPC

A very recent study examined the effects of consuming choline derived from egg yolk on the cognitive function of Japanese adults[14]. While the results showed that 300 mg of egg yolk choline improved the verbal memory of the participants, researchers also explained that there are multiple forms of choline in the so-called egg yolk choline, one of them also being Alpha GPC. While researching choline found in human milk, Canadian researchers explained that 85% of human milk choline consists of water-soluble forms of choline that Alpha GPC is a part of[15]. They found that Alpha GPC concentrations stayed the same while storing human milk at room temperature for up to 4 hours, in the refrigerator for 24 hours or for up to one week in the household freezer. The pasteurisation process, however, decreased Alpha GPC concentrations. Even though both of the studies lack information on the amount of Alpha GPC in those natural sources because more research is needed, they’re a great reminder that Alpha GPC is indeed natural. 

To work smarter make sure to take care of your body with Alpha GPC natural sources which will boost the production of your memory chemical, helping you be more efficient at work and study sessions. 



[1] Pepeu, G., & Giovannini, M. G. (2004). Changes in Acetylcholine Extracellular Levels During Cognitive Processes. Learning & Memory, 11(1), 21–27. 

[2] Cammarata, C. (2021). The Role of Acetylcholine in Flexible Cognition across Age and Species [Doctoral thesis, Cornell University]. 

[3] Wallace, T. C., Blusztajn, J. K., Caudill, M. A., Klatt, K. C., Natker, E., Zeisel, S. H., & Zelman, K. M. (2018). Choline: The Underconsumed and Underappreciated Essential Nutrient. Nutrition Today, 53(6), 240–253. 

[4] Nutrient Ranking Tool (n.d.). My Food Data.

[5] Kansakar, U., Trimarco, V., Mone, P., Varzideh, F., Lombardi, A., & Santulli, G. (2023). Choline supplements: An update. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 14, 1148166. 

[6] De Jesus Moreno Moreno, M. (2003). Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Therapeutics, 25(1), 178–193.

[7] Perri, R. D., Coppola, G., Ambrosio, L. A., Grasso, A., Puca, F. M., & Rizzo, M. (1991). A Multicentre Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of α-Glycerylphosphorylcholine versus Cytosine Diphosphocholine in Patients with Vascular Dementia. Journal of International Medical Research, 19(4), 330–341.

[8] Schettini, G., Ventra, C., Florio, T., Grimaldi, M., Meucci, O., Scorziello, A., Postiglione, A., & Marino, A. (1992). Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 43(1), 139–151. 

[9] Lopez, C. M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F., Bergamaschi, S., Longoni, A., Giaroni, C., & Trabucchi, M. (1991). Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39(4), 835–840. 

[10] Sagaro, G. G., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2023). Activity of Choline Alphoscerate on Adult-Onset Cognitive Dysfunctions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 92(1), 59–70.

[11] Trabucchi, M., Govoni, S., & Battaini, F. (1986). Changes in the interaction between CNS cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons induced by L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a cholinomimetic drug. Il Farmaco; edizione scientifica, 41(4), 325–334.

[12] Vega, J. A., Cavallotti, C., del Valle, M. E., Mancini, M., & Amenta, F. (1993). Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex of aged rats: effect of choline alfoscerate treatment. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 69(1-2), 119–127.

[13] Schettini, G., Ventra, C., Florio, T., Grimaldi, M., Meucci, O., Scorziello, A., Postiglione, A., & Marino, A. (1992). Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 43(1), 139–151.

[14] Yamashita, S., Kawada, N., Wang, W., Susaki, K., Takeda, Y., Kimura, M., Iwama, Y., Miura, Y., Sugano, M., & Matsuoka, R. (2023). Effects of egg yolk choline intake on cognitive functions and plasma choline levels in healthy middle-aged and older Japanese: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 22, 75. 

[15] Moukarzel, S., Wiedeman, A. M., Soberanes, L. S., Dyer, R. A., Innis, S. M., & Lamers, Y. (2019). Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women. Nutrients, 11(12), Article 12. 

[16] Chen, M. Y., Northington, R., & Yan, J. (2017). Choline Composition in Breast Milk–A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis. The FASEB Journal, 31(S1).

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