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Your ultimate guide to Alpha GPC benefits: towards a healthier brain

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You’re either doing mentally strenuous tasks at work or studying for an exam; you want your memory and learning capacities to be at their best. While methods to help you ‘work smarter’ are amazing tools, your body first needs a nutrient that boosts your ability to retain information. Discover what Alpha GPC benefits are and how to take it. 

 

What is Alpha GPC good for?

Alpha GPC or Alpha Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline is a natural and immediate precursor to the brain’s memory and learning chemical acetylcholine. What exactly is Alpha GPC? Alpha GPC is a type of important nutrient vital for the proper functioning of the brain, choline[1 Trusted Source 2018 - Nutrition Today Evidence review Choline: The Underconsumed and Underappreciated Essential Nutrient . Choline helps the brain function by transforming into acetylcholine, an essential brain messenger which plays a role in working memory and learning capacity. Enough choline produces the right amount of acetylcholine meaning this brain messenger can get released during mentally strenuous tasks like studying. 

Alpha GPC vs other forms of choline

There are different forms of choline[2 Trusted Source 2023 - Frontiers in Endocrinology Evidence review Choline supplements: An update . Choline gained from food and other forms of choline such as choline bitartrate and choline citrate has a harder time getting from the blood to the brain. However, a very potent form of choline called Alpha GPC can cross the blood-brain barrier, directly supporting acetylcholine production making it the best Alpha GPC supplement[3 Trusted Source 2003 - Clinical Therapeutics Human clinical study Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ,[4 Trusted Source 1991 - Journal of International Medical Research Human clinical study A Multicentre Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of α-Glycerylphosphorylcholine versus Cytosine Diphosphocholine in Patients with Vascular Dementia . Alpha GPC is considered one of the most used sources of choline due to its high, 40% choline content by weight and ability to cross from the blood to the brain[2 Trusted Source 2023 - Frontiers in Endocrinology Evidence review Choline supplements: An update . Most Alpha GPC products use a 50% Alpha GPC which consists of half bulking agent and half Alpha GPC. They only contain 20% choline. In contrast, another form of choline known as CDP choline or citicoline has a low 18.5% choline content. 

 

What is the best source of Alpha GPC?

One of the best Alpha GPC sources is eggs, especially the yolks. A recent study examined the effects of consuming choline derived from egg yolk on the cognitive function of Japanese adults[5 Trusted Source 2023 - Lipids in Health and Disease Human clinical study Effects of egg yolk choline intake on cognitive functions and plasma choline levels in healthy middle-aged and older Japanese: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled parallel-group study . The results showed that 300 mg of egg yolk choline improved the verbal memory of the participants. Researchers also found that Alpha GPC is present in the so-called egg yolk choline. 

You’re probably wondering if Alpha GPC is completely natural, considering the name. The answer is yes! In your diet, choline, including Alpha GPC, is also found in soybeans which are a great vegan source. Studies have also shown that human milk contains Alpha GPC itself[6 Trusted Source 2019 - Nutrients Human clinical study Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women ,[7 Trusted Source 2017 - The FASEB Journal Systematic review and meta-analysis Choline Composition in Breast Milk–A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis . Canadian researchers explained that 85% of human milk choline consists of water-soluble forms of choline that Alpha GPC is a part of[6 Trusted Source 2019 - Nutrients Human clinical study Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women . brain feed developed the world’s 1st 99% 500mg capsules providing a pure and high-quality Alpha GPC in a single dose.


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Is Alpha GPC good for your brain?

Yes, Alpha GPC boosts the production of your learning and memory chemical, acetylcholine, which can then get released, contributing to improved memory retention and learning[8 Trusted Source 1992 - Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Animal study Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats ,[9 Trusted Source 1991 - Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Animal study Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine What does Alpha GPC do for your body? Because Alpha GPC helps produce acetylcholine, it makes it available for use - so every time you study or work, this important brain messenger gets released, helping you learn and memorise information more effectively. So, now you know how acetylcholine works but what about supplementation - does Alpha GPC actually work? Memory, motivation, cognition and menopause symptoms are all Alpha GPC benefits often suggested in studies and reviews. Let’s take a look at what the clinical evidence says.

Does Alpha GPC improve memory?

An extensive 2023 study review of 29 years of Alpha GPC research on over 400 participants says yes to Alpha GPC benefits memory scores[10 Trusted Source 2023 - Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Systematic review and meta-analysis Activity of Choline Alphoscerate on Adult-Onset Cognitive Dysfunctions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis . The studies examined looked at the memory scores of those supplemented with Alpha GPC. 7 studies used the tested questionnaires including MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) to assess cognitive impairment and the efficacy of supplementation. This is a validated questionnaire used in research to measure memory and language skills. They found that Alpha GPC taken by itself or along with medication led to better scores on the MMSE thus improving participants' memory. 

Does Alpha GPC help with dementia?

Alpha GPC has also been shown to help the ageing brain[2 Trusted Source 2023 - Frontiers in Endocrinology Evidence review Choline supplements: An update . The same 2023 study review found a potential link between Alpha GPC & dementia[10 Trusted Source 2023 - Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Systematic review and meta-analysis Activity of Choline Alphoscerate on Adult-Onset Cognitive Dysfunctions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis . Participants from the studies that were examined were people with mild cognitive impairment. Besides using the MMSE questionnaire, ADAS (The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale) was also used. The review found that besides the positive impacts of Alpha GPC on improving cognitive functions, such as memory, orientation and language, it also had a positive effect on the severity of behavioural symptoms which are present in mild cognitive decline. The results were limited in explaining the improvements, however, based on previous research, it’s possible that improvements were possibly due to an increase in acetylcholine levels.  

Does alpha GPC increase motivation?

Evidence from a 2021 study shows Alpha GPC could increase motivation. A study conducted in Japan found that Alpha GPC increases motivation[11 Trusted Source 2021 - Nutrients Human clinical study Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine Increases Motivation in Healthy Volunteers: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Human Study . Healthy adults were supplemented with 400 mg Alpha GPC for 2 weeks and asked to track their mental state. They reported increased motivation during the day and at night. Wondering how does Alpha GPC make you feel? This study demonstrates how supplying your brain with enough choline gives you a much-needed motivational boost during your day-to-day life, whether it’s during a workout or while trying to complete a daunting project.

Alpha GPC in women’s health

Women’s reproductive hormones like oestrogen take part in the production of new brain cells and improve connections between cells[12 Trusted Source 2018 - Frontiers in Public Health Evidence review Steroid Hormones and Their Action in Women’s Brains: The Importance of Hormonal Balance . This influence on the structure of brain cells impacts cognitive skills like memory and attention. Studies conducting brain scans show that post-period times have higher volumes of brain cells that carry information and help in learning and memory[13 Trusted Source 2008 - Hippocampus Human clinical study Hippocampal structural changes across the menstrual cycle . One reason why you experience “period brain” which makes your brain feel fuzzy is because these hormones are low. This is where Alpha GPC could help. Another link between Alpha GPC & brain fog comes from menopause and memory loss studies. Oestrogen levels drop by 95% during menopause[14 Trusted Source 2013 - Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society Evidence review DHEA and intracrinology at menopause, a positive choice for evolution of the human species . Animal studies found that a decrease in oestrogen reduced the release of acetylcholine[15 Trusted Source 2007 - Neurourology and Urodynamics Animal study The effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on acetylcholine release from nerve fibres and passive stretch-induced acetylcholine release in female rat bladder . This means that menopause impacts the learning and memory areas of the brain which is one of the possible reasons why you may experience brain fog. Postmenopausal women receiving oestrogen therapy showed an increase in attention and memory when conducting cognitive tasks[16 Trusted Source 2015 - Hormones and Behavior Evidence review Estrogen-Cholinergic Interactions: Implications for Cognitive Aging . You could also opt for Alpha GPC supplementation for an immediate boost in acetylcholine levels. 

Is Alpha GPC good in pre-workout?

The science behind Alpha GPC’s role in fitness is emerging - here’s what the results are saying: 

Considering what’s known for now, you could boost your fitness regime with Alpha GPC. Pre-workout supplementation with this potent form of choline could help you challenge yourself inside and outside of the gym. If you’re also wondering does Alpha GPC increase testosterone, studies are yet to show any evidence that would support that claim. 

 

Alpha GPC for ADHD

There’s a lot of talk about Alpha GPC for ADHD symptoms online, with Reddit boasting more and more comments and posts about the effect Alpha GPC could have on ADHD. Currently, there’s a lack of evidence for Alpha GPC supplementation to keep your ADHD in check. When searching for NHS recommendations in supporting ADHD, Alpha GPC is also yet to be recommended[21 Trusted Source 2021 - NHS Governmental authority Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . If you’re wondering does Alpha GPC increase dopamine, there’s also a lack of evidence to support this statement as of now. Despite Alpha GPC not being recognised as a treatment for ADHD, a study suggests it may help with attention[22 Trusted Source 2011 - Behavioural Brain Research Evidence review Acetylcholine and attention . Let’s have a look at the results.

Does Alpha GPC help with focus?

Among certain patient groups, Alpha GPC was found to increase attention scores in those supplemented, due to an increase in acetylcholine. Increased levels were associated with improved reaction times and the number of completed tasks[22 Trusted Source 2011 - Behavioural Brain Research Evidence review Acetylcholine and attention .

 

Is it OK to take Alpha GPC every day?

Yes - a double-blind placebo-controlled study into Alpha GPC tested 180 days of 1200 mg daily continuous supplementation without adverse effects[3 Trusted Source 2003 - Clinical Therapeutics Human clinical study Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial . Is Alpha GPC safe? The recommended dose guidelines should be followed when supplementing. The National Academy of Medicine of the USA and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) both specified adequate intake values for choline. In 2016, EFSA set 400 mg/day for all healthy adults and similarly, 480 mg/day and 520 mg/day for pregnant and lactating women[2 Trusted Source 2023 - Frontiers in Endocrinology Evidence review Choline supplements: An update . So, what's the Alpha GPC dose? If you’re taking Alpha GPC supplementation which is made of 40% Choline by weight, 500mg of Alpha GPC supplies you with the right amount of choline. You’re probably also wondering when to take the supplements. Taking Alpha GPC with food in the morning, at lunch or just before you start work will have the most ideal effects.

How long does it take for Alpha GPC to work?

When orally ingested Alpha GPC shows a relative spike in acetylcholine 1-3 hours post-ingestion[8 Trusted Source 1992 - Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Animal study Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats . Once Alpha GPC is absorbed and upon entering the brain, this nutrient is used to produce acetylcholine, the fast-acting brain chemical involved in learning, memory, attention, and concentration[23 Trusted Source 2012 - Neuron Evidence review Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: Cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior . The effects of this supplement last around 6 hours, however, it takes approximately 24 hours for its effects to diminish completely[24 Trusted Source 2007 - Journal of the Neurological Sciences Evidence review Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation? .  

Does Alpha GPC have negative effects?

Wondering how safe is Alpha GPC? Side effects can appear after exceeding the recommended dose: a small number of people may experience headaches or dizziness. People sometimes wonder, can Alpha GPC cause anxiety? Alpha GPC reviews and studies have yet to show that Alpha GPC causes anxiety. 

Can Alpha-GPC cause a stroke?

There’s a lot of talk about strokes when supplementing with Alpha GPC. Reddit users are worried it might cause issues with their heart health based on a 2021 study on supplementation with Alpha GPC. Stroke risk was shown to be higher for people using Alpha GPC[25 Trusted Source 2021 - JAMA Network Open Human clinical study Association of L-α Glycerylphosphorylcholine With Subsequent Stroke Risk After 10 Years . However, the study used previously gathered data from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and examined only one possible cause of stroke risk. Studies like this one often neglect how many additional factors could interfere with the relationship between stroke risk and Alpha GPC, making claims based on the results almost impossible. In contrast, a recent 2023 review of 15 studies found that Alpha GPC improved neurological function and functional recovery in stroke patients[26 Trusted Source 2023 - Journal of Clinical Medicine Systematic review and meta-analysis Choline-Containing Phospholipids in Stroke Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis . Therefore, more research is needed to conclude what kind of link there is between strokes and Alpha GPC. For now, it seems that more results are showing a favourable relationship between the two.

 

Buy Alpha GPC UK, EU & US: A checklist for the best

When it comes to buying any supplement you should consider quality, format, dosage and source. Despite offering multiple “brain boosting” products on their website, Alpha GPC Holland and Barrett are still missing from their collection. This often begs the question is Alpha GPC legal UK? The answer is yes! You can buy it in multiple forms with Alpha GPC powder and capsules being the most popular ones. Alpha GPC capsules have been widely researched through studies, making them the optimal format. You can buy Alpha GPC from brain feed to get the world’s 1st 99% 500mg capsules providing a pure and high-quality Alpha GPC in a single dose. 


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Alpha GPC vs Alpha BRAIN

If you’ve been looking at how to improve your memory and focus, you’ve probably heard of the Alpha BRAIN supplement. It contains multiple nutrients, including Alpha GPC which is mixed with others to give you the brain-boosting benefits. There are only 69,8 mg of Alpha GPC per capsule, while brain feed’s product contains a whooping 500 mg of Alpha GPC in a single capsule. An Alpha BRAIN review showed that brain feed also provides more Alpha GPC for the same price - instead of Alpha BRAIN’s 1,1 mg, brain feed gets you 22,7 mg of Alpha GPS per £1. 

Alpha GPC vs Olly Laser Focus

With multiple brands offering brain health supplements, it can be a feat to choose the best one for you. Another brand adding Alpha GPC to their formula is Olly. An Olly Laser Focus review showed that brain feed’s Alpha GPC capsule provides you with a dosage of what’s inside 50 Olly Laser Focus gummies! Besides being sugar-free and free of unnecessary filler and flavour that Laser Focus gummies contain, brain feed’s product also provides you with 500 mg of Alpha GPC per £0,83 ($1). Olly Laser Focus gummies, on the other hand, get you 500mg of Alpha GPC for £16.25 ($19.25).

 

All in all, Alpha GPC is a safe and natural supplement that can ease your learning and memorising process by boosting one of the most essential brain messenger acetylcholine.

 

References

[1] Wallace, T. C., Blusztajn, J. K., Caudill, M. A., Klatt, K. C., Natker, E., Zeisel, S. H., & Zelman, K. M. (2018). Choline: The Underconsumed and Underappreciated Essential Nutrient. Nutrition Today, 53(6), 240–253. https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000302

[2] Kansakar, U., Trimarco, V., Mone, P., Varzideh, F., Lombardi, A., & Santulli, G. (2023). Choline supplements: An update. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 14. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2023.1148166

[3] De Jesus Moreno Moreno, M. (2003). Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Therapeutics, 25(1), 178–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90023-3

[4] Perri, R. D., Coppola, G., Ambrosio, L. A., Grasso, A., Puca, F. M., & Rizzo, M. (1991). A Multicentre Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of α-Glycerylphosphorylcholine versus Cytosine Diphosphocholine in Patients with Vascular Dementia. Journal of International Medical Research, 19(4), 330–341. https://doi.org/10.1177/030006059101900406

[5] Yamashita, S., Kawada, N., Wang, W., Susaki, K., Takeda, Y., Kimura, M., Iwama, Y., Miura, Y., Sugano, M., & Matsuoka, R. (2023). Effects of egg yolk choline intake on cognitive functions and plasma choline levels in healthy middle-aged and older Japanese: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 22, 75. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-023-01844-w

[6] Moukarzel, S., Wiedeman, A. M., Soberanes, L. S., Dyer, R. A., Innis, S. M., & Lamers, Y. (2019). Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women. Nutrients, 11(12), Article 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123024

[7] Chen, M. Y., Northington, R., & Yan, J. (2017). Choline Composition in Breast Milk–A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis. The FASEB Journal, 31(S1). https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.lb392

[8] Schettini, G., Ventra, C., Florio, T., Grimaldi, M., Meucci, O., Scorziello, A., Postiglione, A., & Marino, A. (1992). Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 43(1), 139–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(92)90650-5

[9] Lopez, C. M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F., Bergamaschi, S., Longoni, A., Giaroni, C., & Trabucchi, M. (1991). Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39(4), 835–840. https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(91)90040-9

[10] Sagaro, G. G., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2023). Activity of Choline Alphoscerate on Adult-Onset Cognitive Dysfunctions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 92(1), 59–70. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-221189

[11] Tamura, Y., Takata, K., Matsubara, K., & Kataoka, Y. (2021). Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine Increases Motivation in Healthy Volunteers: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Human Study. Nutrients, 13(6), 2091. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062091

[12] Del Río, J. P., Alliende, M. I., Molina, N., Serrano, F. G., Molina, S., & Vigil, P. (2018). Steroid Hormones and Their Action in Women’s Brains: The Importance of Hormonal Balance. Frontiers in Public Health, 6, 141. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00141

[13] Protopopescu, X., Butler, T., Pan, H., Root, J., Altemus, M., Polanecsky, M., McEwen, B., Silbersweig, D., & Stern, E. (2008). Hippocampal structural changes across the menstrual cycle. Hippocampus, 18(10), 985–988. https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.20468

[14] Labrie, F., & Labrie, C. (2013). DHEA and intracrinology at menopause, a positive choice for evolution of the human species. Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society, 16(2), 205–213. https://doi.org/10.3109/13697137.2012.733983

[15] Yoshida, J., Aikawa, K., Yoshimura, Y., Shishido, K., Yanagida, T., & Yamaguchi, O. (2007). The effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on acetylcholine release from nerve fibres and passive stretch-induced acetylcholine release in female rat bladder. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 26(7), 1050–1055. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.20438

[16] Newhouse, P., & Dumas, J. (2015). Estrogen-Cholinergic Interactions: Implications for Cognitive Aging. Hormones and Behavior, 74, 173–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.06.022

[17] Kawamura, T., Okubo, T., Sato, K., Fujita, S., Goto, K., Hamaoka, T., & Iemitsu, M. (2012). Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults. Nutrition, 28(11), 1122–1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.02.011

[18] Roemmich, J. N., & Rogol, A. D. (1997). Exercise and growth hormone: Does one affect the other? The Journal of Pediatrics, 131(1 Pt 2), S75-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3476(97)70017-9

[19] Bellar, D., LeBlanc, N. R., & Campbell, B. (2015). The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x

[20] Barzanjeh, S. P., Pescatello, L. S., Figueroa, A., & Ahmadizad, S. (2022). The Effects of Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine on Heart Rate Variability and Hemodynamic Variables Following Sprint Interval Exercise in Overweight and Obese Women. Nutrients, 14(19), 3970. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14193970

[21] Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (2021) NHS. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/treatment/

[22] Klinkenberg, I., Sambeth, A., & Blokland, A. (2011). Acetylcholine and attention. Behavioural Brain Research, 221(2), 430–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.11.033

[23] Picciotto, M. R., Higley, M. J., & Mineur, Y. S. (2012). Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: Cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior. Neuron, 76(1), 116–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.036

[24] Parnetti, L., Mignini, F., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2007). Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation? Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 257(1–2), 264–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043

[25] Lee, G., Choi, S., Chang, J., Choi, D., Sik Son, J., Kim, K., Min Kim, s., Jeong, S. & Min Park, S. (2021). Association of L-α Glycerylphosphorylcholine With Subsequent Stroke Risk After 10 Years. JAMA Network Open, 4(11): e2136008. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.36008

[26] Sagaro, G. G., & Amenta F. (2023). Choline-Containing Phospholipids in Stroke Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 12(8): 2875. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12082875

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